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Please reply to the below discussion posts, 4 replies total. Discussion Post 1:
Please reply to the below discussion posts, 4 replies total. Discussion Post 1: In your responses, evaluate your peer’s analogies and discuss whether or not your peer identified each process state correctly. Indicate aspects of their post that most effectively illustrate process states. Suggest additional issues (if any) not considered in his or her initial post. Make at least one recommendation about how to make the analogy more effective. Support your statement with evidence from your sources. - Student 1: Process States Scenario: Auto Repair Shop New: Customer arrives with the vehicle needing repair/service. Running: The vehicle is in the repair bay for service, and the mechanic is working on the vehicle. Waiting: The repair process is on hold for a part to be delivered or the mechanic to return to the service bay. (this may be a HALT?) Ready: The vehicle is waiting in the lot for a mechanic to be assigned and work to begin. Terminated: Repair service is stopped or completed. Work Flow: New -> Ready: The paperwork is complete, and the shop has accepted the vehicle for service. Ready -> Waiting: The vehicle is moved into the work bay for the mechanic to become available to do the work. Waiting -> Running: The mechanic starts the work on the vehicle and moves into the mechanic’s repair bay. Running -> Terminated: The vehicle repair is unacceptable, and the mechanic stops the work. Running -> Ready: The materials needed are not available, and the work is set aside (returned to the parking lot) Running -> Waiting: The mechanic turns the completed work over to the garage lead for validation. Waiting -> Ready: The vehicle returned to the parking lot as the mechanic did the work. Ready -> Terminated: The customer receives the vehicle back after completing the paperwork. Exceptions to this might be: Vehicles that the repair shop is unable to repair (incompatible and cannot process). Vehicles are too unsafe for a mechanic to work on (or injure a mechanic) and cause a stoppage. Notes: The Process Scheduler monitors the ready state and runs long-term (planned work) and current jobs. The garage lead/boss might assign tasks to a different mechanic for particular jobs (oil changes or tire replacements) to be handled by mechanics proficient with specific tasks. I/O for shop materials is put into a materials queue, and the work is moved to READY or WAITING state. - Student 2: Hello Class Scenario - Pharmacy New: Client receives a prescription from Doctor for illness Running: Pharmacist contacts insurance company to fill a prescription Waiting: The insurance company accepts the prescription for the client Ready: Presciption gets filled by the pharmacist Terminated: the client has received the prescription from the pharmacy New → Ready: client goes to the pharmacy to get the prescription filled Ready → Running: client tells the pharmacist he has a prescription to fill Running → Terminate: client uses an insurance card for the prescription Running → Ready: Insurance approves prescription Running → Waiting: Pharmacist fills the prescription Waiting → Ready: client leaves with a prescription I used this analogy because I have a family that works in a pharmacy therefore I used the scenario that I am familiar with. Discussion Post 2: In your responses, you will evaluate your peers’ work from this week and provide suggestions or comments about how they could improve Section 2 of their concept maps before final submission. Describe any organizational elements that surprised you. Identify any pieces of information that you felt were missing or unclear. Propose at least one recommendation about how each peer can refine the organization or clarify the concepts of threads and process synchronization. Support your statements with evidence from your sources. -Student 1: Hello Class Describe process, process state, and process control block. In the Operating System, a Process is something that is currently under execution. An active program can be called a Process. When you want to search for something on the web then you start a browser. Another example of a process can be starting your music player to listen to some cool music of your choice. Each and every process has some states associated with it at a particular instant of time. This is denoted by process state. It can be ready, waiting, or running. the process control block (PCB) is used to track the process’s execution status. Each block of memory contains information about the process state, program counter, stack pointer, status of opened files, scheduling algorithms, Compare single- and multi-threaded motivations and models. Single-threaded processes contain the execution of instructions in a single sequence. In other words, one command is processed at a time. Multithreaded processes. are processes that allow the execution of multiple parts of a program at the same time. Describe the critical-section problem and explain a software solution that resolves this problem. The critical section problem is used to design a protocol followed by a group of processes so that when one process has entered its critical section, no other process is allowed to execute in its critical section. Any solution to the critical section problem must satisfy the following requirements, Mutual exclusion, Progress, and Bounded waiting. Most solutions to the critical section problem utilize locks implemented on software. The solutions include test_and_set, compare_and_swap, Mutex locks, Semaphores, and Condition variables. -Student 2: Hey class, I've resubmitted my assignment here, I don't know what happened with that first try, sorry. Describe process, process state, and process control block: Process – It is a program in execution mode. “A process is the unit of work in a modern time-sharing system (Silberschatz & Gagne, 2014).” It is the basic unit of work that the system needs to get certain tasks done. There are four sections in a process; they are stack, heap, text, and data. Process State – This is the state is which the process changes. The five main parts of the process state is new, running, waiting, ready and terminated. New means that the process is being started, running is when instruction are being performed, waiting is when the process is awaiting an event or action to take place, ready means it is awaiting to be assigned to a processor, and terminated means the job is done (Silberschatz & Gagne,2014). The process state is the current activity that the computer is trying to execute. Process Control block – The PCB stores data items that are vital for effective processing. It is used to monitor the execution of each tasks being done. Each block holds information about the program counter, stack pointer, process state, status of opened filed, algorithms, etc. (Process Table, 20200. It stores the register content of the computer. Compare single- and multi-threaded motivations and models A single-threaded process executes a single sequence of instructions, meaning it only had one command processing each time. A multi-threaded processes executes multiple data/task simultaneously which most modern computers use. Describe the critical-section problem and explain a software solution that resolves this problem. The critical-section problem is a procedure which halts other processes, so when one process hits its critical section there are no way for other process to execute. The solutions to this problem has three parts and they are mutual exclusion, progress, and bounded waiting. “Mutual exclusion: When one process is executing in its critical section, no other process is allowed to execute in its critical section. Progress: When no process is executing in its critical section, and there exists a process that wishes to enter its critical section, it should not have to wait indefinitely to enter it. Bounded waiting: There must be a bound on the number of times a process is allowed to execute in its critical section, after another process has requested to enter its critical section and before that request is accepted (Monum, 2022).”

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