Taken together, the history in chap. 12 and Shafer’s essay “Southernization” provide us much to consider with respect to the Rise of the West, that is, from Europe’s marginal position in the globe in the fifteenth century to its transformation into the center of empires by the late nineteenth. Based on your reading of this history, what do you think are the most relevant factors that made this shift possible? In your initial post you should cite a few things you find to be most significant. In your replies you should agree or disagree with your fellow classmates and cite evidence that supports your position.