QUESTIONS 1. Interpret and explain Recha’s psychological state and how Nathan tries to counsel her. See 1:1-2; 2:4. 2. What common understanding do Nathan and the Templar reach about religion and war in 2:5? Describe and interpret the impact Nathan’s gratitude had on the Templar. 3. Describe and interpret the role of money in the lives of Saladin, the Dervish and Nathan, and why Saladin didn’t just take Nathan’s money by force. See 1:3, 2:2-3. 4. Describe and interpret how do Christian authorities see the role of religion in war and peace. See 1:5, 2:1. Instruction 1)These are the 4 questions on the reading. In these cases, answers normally require at least half a page single-spaced (one page double-spaced) per question. 2)Write answers in paragraphs. 3). Be detailed. 4)Quote selectively to support paraphrasing and summarizing the reading. No outside source is required besides the attachment provided below, For citing your sources, follow the specific instructions For example, identify Act 2, Scene 2 as “2:2”. See the study questions for examples. THE SETTING This play is set in 12th century Jerusalem. Christians controlled the city, were at war with Muslims, and had expelled Jews from the city. This changed when Saladin, a Muslim Sultan, took Jerusalem back from the Christian crusaders in 1187. Under Saladin, Jews were permitted to return to the city. The loss of Jerusalem sparked the Third Crusade, led by King Richard I of England (Richard the Lionheart of the Robin Hood fame), to re-conquer Jerusalem for Christendom. Saladin managed to fend off Richard. In 1192 the two signed a peace treaty. According to the treaty, Saladin gained uncontested control over Jerusalem, and unarmed Christians and Muslims alike were given safe passage throughout Palestine. SOME SPOILERS YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM THE START The play starts with a number of characters being religious and political strangers to each other, but it ends with the discovery that many of them are related. The true identities of the characters are not known to the reader at the start of the play. They are revealed only at the end. Knowing this from the very start will make it easier for you to follow what happens and why. Nathan is not Recha’s biological father. She was born Christian and she was baptized. It was against canon law (the law of the Church) for a baptized Christian child to grow up in a Jewish household, as that was considered an act of taking someone away from their true faith. Daja, who is employed by Nathan as Recha’s nanny, knows the secret about Recha but she has been instructed by Nathan not to tell anyone. Since Daja is Christian and faithful to the Church, however, she feels guilty for going along with a sin that is punishable by God. Recha’s biological father was Nathan’s friend Wolf von Filnek. Nathan promised Wolf that he would take care of Recha if Wolf himself couldn’t. When that day came, Recha was still a baby. It was merely days after Nathan’s own family (his wife and seven sons) were massacred by Christian Templars (the so called “warriors of God” who fought in the crusades). So, when Nathan adopted the Christian Recha, he saw her as a gift from God for maintaining his faith despite the horrible loss of his family at the hands of Christians. There are other twists, but the above will help you get started. PLOT OUTLINE The following is an outline that will assist you when you read the text. 1:1-2 Nathan comes home and learns from Daja about how Recha was in a fire but was saved by a Templar. Though a Christian soldier, the Templar was in the city after his life was spared by Saladin. 1:3 Nathan meets his friend Al-Hafi (“the Dervish”), and they discuss how Saladin is very generous with the poor. Saladin made Al-Hafi his treasurer. 1:4 Daja urgently informs Nathan that the Templar is nearby. She tried to get the Templar to see Nathan and Recha, but the Templar refuses. 1:5 A Christian Friar is sent by the Patriarch (the local authority of the Catholic Church) to ask the Templar if he would spy on the Sultan for the Church and help them plan an invasion to re-take Jerusalem. The Templar says no. 1:6 Daja approaches the Templar and asks him to meet with Nathan and Recha. The Templar says no. 2:1 King Richard of England had proposed a marriage between his sister and Saladin’s brother Malek (aka Assad), but the Church rejected the plan. The marriage would have established an alliance and cease-fire. 2:2 We find out that Saladin is broke, as he has given too much of his money away. Sittah has been keeping the household afloat with her savings. Sittah proposes that Al Hafi ask Nathan for a loan. Al Hafi mentions, however, that Nathan does not lend money, as he always wants to have some to give away. 2:3 Sittah and Saladin decide to try to trick Nathan into lending them money. 2:4 Recha and Nathan speak about the Templar. 2:5 Nathan meets the Templar. They discuss religion and war. The Templar is profoundly moved. 2:6 Nathan receives word that the Sultan has summoned him. 2:7 Since the Sultan saved the Templar who saved Recha, Nathan says that this has “suddenly thrown a rope around me that will forever bind me in [the Sultan’s] service. I can hardly wait to see what he’ll command me to do first.” Nathan notices the remarkable resemblance between the Templar and his old friend Wolf von Filnek, Recha’s biological father. 2:8 Nathan repeats his request to Daja that she not reveal the secret about Recha’s identity. 2:9 Al Hafi tells Nathan that he is quitting his service for the Sultan and going to live on the shore of the Ganges river. He cannot stand borrowing money on someone’s behalf, and he cannot stand the Sultan’s extravagance.